I had always thought that Druids were ancient magicians: Merlin and his group of men skulking in the shadowy forest. But Graham Robb, in his book The Discovery of Middle Earth: Mapping the Lost World of the Celts, has described a surprisingly sophisticated culture.
Here's the historical snapshot: "Fifty generations ago the cultural empire of the Celts stretched from the Black Sea to Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland. In six hundred years, the Celts had produced some of the finest artistic and scientific masterpieces of the ancient world. In 58 BC, Julius Caesar marched over the Alps, bringing slavery and genocide to western Europe. Within eight years the Celts of what is now France were utterly annihilated, and in another hundred years the Romans had overrun Britain. It is astonishing how little remains of this great civilization."
Robb ― called "one of the more unusual and appealing historians currently striding the planet" by the New York Times -- planned a bicycling trip along the Heraklean Way, the ancient route from Portugal to the Alps, and discovered a beautiful and precise pattern of towns and holy places based on astronomical and geometrical measurements: the three-dimensional "Middle Earth" of the Celts. (Honestly, a lot of historians write compellations of other people's work or might have a unique idea based on other people's discoveries but here's a guy on a bicycle with his maps, uncovering something genuinely new. Kudos.)
Let's look at four common misconceptions about the Druids:
First, they were crude forest dwellers. While we tend to believe that the Romans brought the first roads and architecture to Europe, the Celts had sturdy and well-designed roads before they arrived. "Caesar found roads and bridges already in place wherever he went… In Gaul, the marching speed of the legion was always well above the average for the Roman empire… Which gives some idea of the resilience of the road surface.[i] The Romans could no longer take credit for the first roads."